eCM (Eur Cell Mater / e Cells & Materials) Not-for-Profit Open Access
Created by Scientists, for Scientists
 ISSN:1473-2262         NLM:100973416 (link)         DOI:10.22203/eCM

2020   Volume No 40 – pages 276-302

Title: Effect of diamond-like carbon doped with chromium on cell differentiation, immune activation and apoptosis

Authors: M Travnickova, M Vandrovcova, E Filova, M Steinerova, J Rackova, T Kocourek, J Bartova, T Suchy, M Zaloudkova, M Jelinek, L Bacakova

Address: Department of Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering, Institute of Physiology of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Videnska 1083, 142 20 Prague 4, Czech Republic

E-mail: elena.filova at

Abstract: Diamond-like carbon (DLC) is a biocompatible material that has many potential biomedical applications, including in orthopaedics. DLC layers doped with Cr at atomic percent (at.%) of 0, 0.9, 1.8, 7.3, and 7.7 at.% were evaluated with reference to their osteoinductivity with human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs), immune activation potential with RAW 264.7 macrophage-like cells, and their effect on apoptosis in Saos-2 human osteoblast-like cells and neonatal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs). At mRNA level, hMSCs on DLC doped with 0.9 and 7.7 at.% of Cr reached higher maximum values of both RUNX2 and alkaline phosphatase. An earlier onset of mRNA production of type I collagen and osteocalcin was also observed on these samples; they also supported the production of both type I collagen and osteocalcin. RAW 264.7 macrophages were screened using a RayBio™ Human Cytokine Array for cytokine production. 10 cytokines were at a concentration more than 2 × as high as the concentration of a positive control, but the values for the DLC samples were only moderately higher than the values on glass. NHDF cells, but not Saos-2 cells, had a higher expression of pro-apoptotic markers Bax and Bim and a lower expression of anti-apoptotic factor BCL-XL in proportion to the Cr content. Increased apoptosis was also proven by annexin V staining. These results show that a Cr-doped DLC layer with a lower Cr content can act as an osteoinductive material with relatively low immunogenicity, but that a higher Cr content can induce cell apoptosis.

Key Words: Chromium, biocompatibility, mesenchymal stromal cells, apoptosis, osteogenic differentiation, macrophages.

Publication date: November 30th 2020

Article download: Pages 276-302 (PDF file)

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