eCM (Eur Cell Mater / e Cells & Materials) Not-for-Profit Open Access
Created by Scientists, for Scientists
 ISSN:1473-2262         NLM:100973416 (link)         DOI:10.22203/eCM

2021   Volume No 41 – pages 184-193

Title: The role of inflammation modulation in dental pulp regeneration

Authors: SH Zaky, M Shehabeldin, H Ray, C Sfeir

Address: Centre for Craniofacial Regeneration, University of Pittsburgh, 501 Salk Pavilion, 335 Sutherland Drive, Pittsburgh, PA, 15213, USA

E-mail: csfeir at

Abstract: A vital and healthy dental pulp (DP) is required for teeth to remain functional throughout a lifespan . Appreciating its value for the tooth, the regeneration of the DP is a highly researched goal. While inflammation of the DP marks the beginning of an eventual necrosis, it is also the prerequisite for the regenerative events of neovascularisation, stem cells mobilisation and reparative dentine deposition. In the light of a pro-regenerative inflammatory process, the present review discusses the role of macrophage population shift from pro- to anti-inflammatory in reversible versus irreversible pulpitis, while also analysing the overlooked contribution of pulp innervation and locally derived neuropeptides to the process. Then, the currently practiced (pulp capping and revascularisation) and researched (cells transplantation and cell homing) approaches for DP regeneration are discussed. Focusing on the role of cell homing in modulating inflammation, some potential strategies are highlighted to harness the inflammatory process for DP regeneration, mainly by reversing inflammation through macrophage induction. Next, some potential clinical applications are discussed – especially with capping materials – that could boost macrophage polarisation and complement system activation. Finally, current challenges facing the regeneration of the DP are presented, while underlining the importance of promoting an anti-inflammatory environment conducive to a regenerative process.

Key Words: Dental pulp, inflammation modulation, regeneration, pro-inflammtory cytokines.

Publication date: February 14th 2021

Article download: Pages 184-193 (PDF file)

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