eCM (Eur Cell Mater / e Cells & Materials) Not-for-Profit Open Access
Created by Scientists, for Scientists
 ISSN:1473-2262         NLM:100973416 (link)         DOI:10.22203/eCM

2021   Volume No 41 – pages 668-679

Title: Reverse dynamisation: a modern perspective on Stephan Perren’s strain theory

Authors: V Glatt, CH Evans, K Tetsworth

Address: Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Texas Health Science Centre San Antonio, 7703 Floyd Curl Drive, MC 7774, San Antonio, TX 78229-3900, USA

E-mail: glatt at

Abstract: The present review acknowledges the tremendous impact of Stephan Perren’s strain theory, considered with respect to the earlier contributions of Roux and Pauwels. Then, it provides further insight by examining how the concept of reverse dynamisation extended Perren’s theory within a modern context. A key factor of this more contemporary theory is that it introduces variable mechanical conditions at different time points during bone healing, opening the possibility of manipulating biology through mechanics to achieve the desired clinical outcome. The discussion focusses on the current state of the art and the most recent advances made towards optimising and accelerating bone regeneration, by actively controlling the mechanical environment as healing progresses. Reverse dynamisation utilises a very specific mechanical manipulation regimen, with conditions initially flexible to encourage and expedite early callus formation. Once callus has formed, the mechanical conditions are intentionally modified to create a rigid environment under which the soft callus is quickly converted to hard callus, bridging the fracture site and leading to a more rapid union. The relevant literature, principally animal studies, was surveyed to provide ample evidence in support of the effectiveness of reverse dynamisation. By providing a modern perspective on Stephan Perren’s strain theory, reverse dynamisation perhaps holds the key to tipping the balance in favour of a more rapid and reliable union when treating acute fractures, osteotomies, non-unions and other circumstances where it is necessary to regenerate bone.

Key Words: Reverse dynamisation, dynamisation, interfragmentary strain theory, bone healing, fracture healing, mechanical environment, fixation stability, animal models.

Publication date: June 10th 2021

Article download: Pages 668-679 (PDF file)

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