eCM (Eur Cell Mater / e Cells & Materials) Not-for-Profit Open Access
Created by Scientists, for Scientists
 ISSN:1473-2262         NLM:100973416 (link)         DOI:10.22203/eCM

2021   Volume No 42 – pages 232-245

Title: A bilayered tissue engineered in vitro model simulating the tooth periodontium

Authors: A Khadre, ELM Raif, S Junaid, OM Goudouri, W Refaat, A Ramadan, AR Boccaccini, R El-Gendy

Address: Department of Oral Biology, School of Dentistry, Faculty of Medicine & Health, Level 7, Welcome Trust Brenner Building, University of Leeds, St James’s University Hospital, Leeds, LS9 7TF, UK

E-mail: R.El-Gendy at

Abstract: Due to the complexity of the structure of the tooth periodontium, regeneration of the full tooth attachment is not a trivial task. There is also a gap in models that can represent human tooth attachment in vitro and in vivo. The aim of this study was to develop a bilayered in vitro construct that simulated the tooth periodontal ligament and attached alveolar bone, for the purpose of tissue regeneration and investigation of physiological and orthodontic loading. Two types of materials were used to develop this construct: sol-gel 60S10Mg derived scaffold, representing the hard tissue component of the periodontium, and commercially available Geistlich Bio-Gide® collagen membrane, representing the soft tissue component of the tooth attachment. Each scaffold was dynamically seeded with human periodontal ligament cells (HPDLCs). Scaffolds were either cultured separately, or combined in a bilayered construct, for 2 weeks. Characterisation of the individual scaffolds and the bilayered constructs included biological characterisation (cell viability, scanning electron microscopy to confirm cell attachment, gene expression of periodontium regeneration markers), and mechanical characterisation of scaffolds and constructs. HPDLCs enjoyed a biocompatible 3-dimensional environment within the bilayered construct components. There was no drop in cellular gene expression in the bilayered construct, compared to the separate scaffolds.

Key Words: Periodontal regeneration, physiologic simulation, in vitro models, bilayered construct, tissue engineering, periodontal ligament cells.

Publication date: October 11th 2021

Article download: Pages 232-245 (PDF file)

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