eCM (Eur Cell Mater / e Cells & Materials) eCM Open Access Scientific Journal
 ISSN:1473-2262         NLM:100973416 (link)         DOI:10.22203/eCM

2024   Volume No 47 – pages 190-218

Title: Immune responses around biomaterials for vital pulp therapy

Authors:  YG Dai, JH Chen, WH Guo

Address: Department of Pediateric Dentistry, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, 610041 Chengdu, Sichuan, China; Yunnan Key Laboratory of Stomatology, The Affiliated Hospital of Stomatology, School of Stomatology, Kunming Medical University, 650500 Kunming, Yunnan, China

E-mail: guoweihua943019 at

Abstract: Vital pulp therapy (VPT) has been one of the standard treatments for immature teeth and young permanent teeth affected by caries or trauma, aiming to preserve the apical tissue's growth potential and ensure the teeth's long-term retention and functionality. Nowadays, its application in mature teeth has garnered attention from professionals due to promising outcomes in numerous cases. Biomaterials play a crucial role in VPT success, as they facilitate an optimal environment for stem cell growth and promote the formation of thicker dentinal walls. Despite significant advancements in biomaterials, such as the introduction of calcium silicate-based cements (CSCs) in recent decades, knowledge regarding the immunological reactions these materials provoke, both locally and systemically, remains limited, calling for more research. This review intends to provide a summary of biomaterials currently used in VPT, focusing on the immune responses they trigger. This retrospective and informative examination aims to deepen the understanding of the interactions between these materials and the organism, offering insights that could redefine VPT's clinical application scope in the future. It may also aid in developing potential diagnostic biomarkers for assessing pulp vitality and guide the ongoing development of new VPT materials.

Keywords: Biomaterial, vital pulp therapy (VPT), immune response, pulp regeneration, pulp capping.

Publication date: June 4th 2024

Copyright policy: © 2024 The Author(s). Published by Forum Multimedia Publishing, LLC. This article is distributed in accordance with Creative Commons Attribution Licence (

Article download: Pages 190-218 (PDF file)

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